__Full Title__:

**Part**

**III**.

**A**.

**.**

**Epoch****t**_{ALL}**= 0****Epoch**

**t**

_{ALL}**= 1**:

**.**

__atoms__emergent

*T***.**

*he*__Dialectic__of NatureDear Readers,

The present blog-entry is the

**third**blog-entry in this series on the

**‘meta-modeling’ of the**

*dialectical***,**

*natural history of the total***, as presently known to science [except that the main ‘meta-model’ narrated herein does not yet**

*known cosmos**directly*and

*explicitly*address either “Dark Energy” or “Dark Matter”].

Regards,

Miguel

**Part**

**III**.

**A**.:

**Narration**--

*Dialectical**-*

**Mathematical Meta**-**Model****--**

*of our*__Story__*Cosmos***.**

**Epoch****t**_{ALL}**= 0**

**Epoch****t**

_{ALL}**= 1**:

__atoms__**emergent**.

*Recounting the Story of the Opening Chapter of the Ontological*__Self__*-*,

**Revolutions of Pre**-**Human Cosmological Nature**

__Dialectical__*-*.

**Mathematically as well as Narratively****: Throughout this part, we employ two key**

__Please Note__**scientifico-philosophical terms.**

*ancient*Their resurrection in the

**also serves well to catalyze an urgently needed**

*present***transition, to a**

*future**‘*,

**trans**-**modern**’**--**

*science***1**. «

**», which means, e.g**

__Monad__*., “*

__qual__itative

*Unit**”*,

*“*

__qual__itative

*logical*__Individual__*”*, or

*“*

__qual__itative

__Element__*”*-- a single one of the many like-kind constituents represented,

**, by a**

*collectively**“*, and;

**category**”**2**. «

**» [plural: «**

*Arithmos***»], which means a**

*arithmo*__i__*“*, e.g

**category**”*.*an

*“*, a

**ensemble**”*“*, a

**multitude**”*‘“*, or an

**population**”’*“*of «

**assemblage**”**» -- i.e., of**

*monads**“*

__qual__itative

*units**”*, of

*“*

__qual__itative

*logical individuals**”*, or of

*“*

__qual__itative

*elements**”*-- all of which «

**» share a common**

*monads***, or a common**

__qual__ity**, i.e., a «**

*predicate***» in common; a like “kind”.**

__categore__ma**: Many of the special, technical words employed below are also hypertext links to definitions of those words [often for the first occurrence of each such word**

__Please Note Also__*only*].

*The*

*Dialectical**‘*

*Theory of Everything**’*

**for Epoch**

__Equation__**t**

_{ALL}**= 1**--

*Irruption of the*

__atoms__*as*

**Monads**

*‘*

*Cosmo**-*

**Ontology**

*’***via***‘*

**-**__Self__

**Meta**-

**Monad****ization**’

*of**‘*

**Elementary Pa**

__r__*«*

**ticles**’**».**

*Monads*The dialectical ‘meta-equation meta-model’ of

**which we will be exploring, and iterating for escalating values of its “discrete**

*the total cosmos***ime” parameter, or ‘epoch parameter’,**

__t__**t**

**, and whose story we will be narrating throughout this series, is the following --**

_{ALL}

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{t}

_{ALL}**= <**

_{ALL}

__r__**>**

^{2t}

^{ALL}-- wherein

_{ALL}**denotes the primordial ‘cosmo-ontological category’ of p**

__r__**e-nuclea**

__r__**“pa**

__r__**ticles”,**

__r__i.e., the category of “

**elementary**”

**[and of anything else primordially existent, but unknown, as yet, to human science], belongs to a general family of such historical-dialectical ‘meta-models’, whose various features can be defined as follows --**

*bosons and fermions*__and____composite__In the present blog-entry of this series of blog-entries, we will be narrating those parts of our, and of its,

*‘‘‘*, that inhere in the

**story of everything**’’’**0**th and the

**1**st epochs per this ‘meta-equation’, i.e., that inhere in the equations that inhere in this ‘meta-equation’ for the

**t**

_{ALL}**= 0**value, and for the

**t**

_{ALL}**= 1**value, of its discrete-

**ime,**

__t__**,**

*epoch parameter***t**

**.**

_{ALL}**0**. “

**Epoch**”

**t**

**=**_{ALL}**0**:

**Point of Departure**-- “ p

**e-nuclea**

__r__**, p**

__r__**e-atomic “pa**

__r__**ticles” ” --**

__r__**Bosonic and Fermionic p**

**-**

__r__e**atomic**“

**pa**

**”**

__r__ticles**form the Given**,

**the Ground**,

**the Premise**,

**the Base**,

**and the Root**

**of this**‘

**Meta**-

**Model**’,

**and of Its Entire**

*‘*

**Temporal Qualo**-**Fractal**’**Progression**.

**for the “ p**

**0**.**1**__Formulaic Summary__**r**e-nuclea

**r**, p

**r**e-atomic “pa

**r**ticles” ” «

**» physical-ontological category, during it epoch of sole ‘extantcy’, “epoch**

*arché***0**”.

This sub-section presents the ‘Ideo

**ized’ / ‘ideo**

__graph__**ized’, algebraical/arithmetical, “shorthand” summary of the narrative rendition, below, for our meta-model’s “epoch**

__gram__**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**0**”.

In the following formula,

_{ALL}**denotes the ‘physio-ontological’**

__r__**of “ p**

*category***e-nuclea**

__r__**,**

__r__p

**e-atomic “pa**

__r__**ticles” ”, i.e., of “**

__r__**elementary**”

*bosons and*__and____composite__**fermions**--

If

**t**

**, then --**

**= 0**_{ALL}

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{t}

_{ALL}**=**

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{0}**=**

**<**

_{ALL}

__r__**>**

^{20}=**<**

_{ALL}

__r__**>**

^{1}=

_{ALL}

__r__

^{1}**=**

_{ALL}**.**

__r__
“Epoch

**0**” ‘‘‘contains’’’ only the ontology of our «**» cosmological category, denoted by***arché*_{ALL}**.**__r__

**0**.**2****for the “ p**

__Narrative Summary__**r**e-nuclea

**r**, p

**r**e-atomic “pa

**r**ticles” ” «

**» category of physical ontology, during its epoch of**

*arché**‘extantcy’, during which no other cosmological-ontological categories are as yet instantiated, epoch*

**sole****0**.

Brian May, Patrick Moore, and Chris Lintott, writing in the fourth edition of their book

__:__

**Bang!***, issued in*

**The Complete History of the Universe****2012**, characterize what the model narrated herein terms “epoch

**0**” , in terms of the “Big Bang” theory, as follows --

**“**Everything, space, time, matter, came into existence with a ‘Big Bang’, around 13.7 billion years ago.”

“The Universe then was a strange place -- as alien as it could possibly be.”

“There were no planets, stars, or galaxies; there was only a melee of elementary particles; these filled the Universe.

**”**

[May, Moore, and Linott,

__:__

**Bang!***, Carlton Books, Ltd. [London:*

**The Complete History of the Universe****2012**], p.

**14**]

The early universe -- the “epoch

**0**” universe, per the ‘meta-model’ narrated in this series -- was not only

*strange: it was*

**itatively**__quant__*.*

**itatively strange**__qual__Moreover, that universe was not only

*: it was*

__qual__itatively strange*in a*

**itatively strange**__qual____sense. It was__

**deep***,*

**ontologically strange**

__ontologically____alien__**to contemplate, for us.**

What we mean is that the ontological content of the “epoch

**0**” universe was missing all of the major «

**» that we assign to most of the familiar ontological categories by which we characterize the contemporary cosmos.**

*monads*Our meta-model’s universe, reconstructed for ‘epoch

**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**0**’, is missing essentially all of the «

**» of the**

*monads*__,__

**atoms****, ‘**

__molecules____’, and__

**pre**-**ekaryotic living cells****‘cosmo-ontological’ categories, as well as those of all of the ‘**

__eukaryotic living cells____’ [“__

**multi**-[**eukaryotic**-]**cellular meta**-**biota****meta**-

**phyta***”*and “

**meta-**

*zoa**”*] ‘cosmo-ontological’ categories, and beyond [not even mentioning we, ourselves -- the

**-societal «**

__human__**»].**

*monads*That is, that epoch was missing nearly every kind of thing that is

*for human beings -- that is sensorially accessible for us -- in the contemporary cosmos, e.g., the “*

**tangible****meta**-

**phyta***”*and the “

**meta-**

*zoa**”*, as well as the kinds -- the ‘cosmo-ontological’ categories -- whose «

**» are sensuously**

*monads**“*tangible” and

**in***“*visible” to the unaided, genomic human sensorium, but that we have learned about recently in our history, via the most advanced developments of the ‘human phenome’ -- via the technological ‘extent-tions’ of our genomic sensorium; via science -- such as the “

**in****microbes**”, the

**, and the**

__m__olecules**.**

__a__tomsThe ‘epoch

**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**0**’, per our ‘meta-model’, was contained only the «

**» of the most sensually remote, most exotic, most microscopic, most recently discerned denizens of our most deeply delved data to-date: it was missing everything but**

*monads*

_{ALL}**; everything but the ‘p**

__r____e-atomic’ “pa__

**r****ticle” «**

__r__**»**

*monads*

**!**Later in their book, they characterize the “Big Bang” theory’s version of the demise of “epoch

**0**” -- i.e., the rise of “epoch

**1**”, per the reckoning of our ‘meta-model’ -- in the following terms --

**“**For the next 300,000 years following the cataclysmic period of inflation [which the authors

elsewhere in the book describe as taking place “between 10

^{-35}and 10

^{-32}seconds after the Big Bang” -- M.D.] there were no major developments. ...”

“From our point of view, the biggest difference between this Universe and the Universe we see today is that in those very early times it was completely opaque.”

“... no photon could travel very far before hitting and being absorbed by an electron ...”

“However, when the Universe cooled to a mere 3000 degrees, around 300,000 years after the Big Bang, a sudden change took place.”

“Before this critical moment, the electrons -- the lightest, and therefore fastest of the constituent of ordinary atomic matter -- had been moving too fast to be captured by the heavier atomic nuclei, but at a temperature of 3000 degrees they could no longer avoid capture.”

“The first neutral atoms were formed.”

“... A large expanse of space between each newly formed atom therefore opened up, and photons were suddenly free to travel for great distances. In other words, matter and radiation where separated, and 300,000 years after the Big Bang the Universe became transparent.

**”**

[May, Moore, and Linott,

__:__

**Bang!***, Carlton Books, Ltd. [London:*

**The Complete History of the Universe****2012**], pp.

**27**-

**28**]

Thus, per the prevailing Big Bang model, the duration of our

_{ALL}**-only epoch, i.e., of the**

__r__“discrete time” unit duration, from the start of

**t**

**to the start of**

**= 0**_{ALL}**t**

**, lasted,**

**= 1**_{ALL}in terms of “continuous time”, for 300,000 years -- for the very first 300,000 years of

time itself, as such

**!**

**0**.**3**__.__

**Extended Commentary****In a strict sense, ‘epoch**

**t**

**’ is not an epoch**

**= 0**_{ALL}proper for this ‘meta-model’

*at all*, if we are to confine its language to that undergirded by the

_{N}

__Q__**_**

**dialectical arithmetic, based upon/subsuming the “**

**N**atural” Numbers --

**N**

__=__**{1**,

**2**,

**3**,

**. . .}**

-- because zero is

__a “__**not****N**atural” Number in our tradition:**0****~in****N**.However, including an ‘epoch

**0**’ in our narrative has the advantage of once again calling attention to the ‘fundamentality’ of the choice of the «

**» category, as ‘‘‘foundation’’’, ‘‘‘premise’’’, ‘‘‘ground’’’ -- for the rest of this ‘dialectical meta-model’, and for all such ‘dialectical meta-models’ -- and as**

*arché**‘‘‘*-- always present ‘‘‘inside’’’, and at the base of, all of its subsequent epochs.

**ever**-**present origin**’’’Including an ‘epoch

**0**’ in our narrative also has the advantage of calling attention to the issues surrounding our choice of the «

**» in the case of this specific ‘dialectical meta-model’, in the context of the alternative «**

*arché***» choice-options that we considered, and, in some cases, also explored in depth, and even continue to pursue.**

*arché*The

_{ALL}**«**

__r__**» arises as a “lumping together” of the**

*arché***and**

*first***categories -- that is, of**

*second*the «

**»**

*arché**-*«

**»**

*physis***, with the**

*category*

*first*

__meta__*-*«

**»**

*physis***-- of our standard version**

*category*of our

*‘*.

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’The «

**»»**

*arché***for our standard version of our**

*category**‘*is

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’denoted by

_{ALL}**, connoting the**

__n__**of the ‘pre-**

*category***uclear/sub-**

__n__**uclear’ “**

__n__**particles**”, i.e.,

of the so-called

*“*

**”**__elementary__

*bosons and fermions***-- implicitly ‘‘‘containing’’’ the**

__only__

**photons**,

**gluons**,

**W**s,

**Z**s, and [perhaps] the

**Higgs bosons**, and [perhaps] the

**gravitons**, as

the

*“*

**”**__elementary__**, plus the**

*bosons***quarks**-- “

**up**”, “

**down**”, “

**charm**”, “

**strange**”, “

**top**”, and

“

**bottom**” -- and the [

*“*]

**”**__elementary__**--**

*leptons***electrons**,

**electron neutrinos**,

**muons**,

**muon neutrinos**,

**tauons**, and

**tauon neutrinos**-- as the

*“*

**”**__elementary__**, as well as the**

*fermions*

*“*of all of these

**-**__anti__**particles**”*“*

**”**__elementary__

*bosons and fermions**--*

**~30**

*“*

__elementary__

__”__**particle****in all, if we count the “anti-matter”**

*species**“*

__elementary__*, when they*

__”__**particles**exist as other than their correlated “matter”

*“*

__elementary__*, separately.*

__”__**particles**It also connotes anything else that was primordially existent, but that is, as yet, unknown to human science.

The

*second***, the**

*category*

*first*

__meta__*-*«

**»**

*physis***, for that standard version of our**

*category*

*‘*is denoted by

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’

_{ALL}**, connoting the**

__s__**of the**

*category*

*‘*

**-**__pre__**tomic /**

__a__

__s__*ub**-*

**tomic’ “**

__a__**particles**”, i.e., of the so-called

*“*,

**”**__composite__*‘‘‘*

**hadronic**’’’

**-- implicitly ‘‘‘containing’’’ the**

*bosons and fermions***mesons**, for the

*“*

**”**__composite__**,**

*bosons*and the

**--**

*baryons**‘*/

**-**__meta__**quark**

__meta__*-*

**gluon**’**protons**,

*‘*/

**-**__meta__**quark**

__meta__*-*

**gluon**’**neutrons**,

and the

**hyperons**-- for the

*“*

**”**__composite__**. The**

*fermions*

*leptonic**“*

**”**__elementary__**,**

*fermions*exhibiting the “Pauli Exclusion” behavior, and

__exhibiting the “strong interaction”__

**not**behavior, are thus not seen to form

*composite**“*.

**particles**”The ‘meta-model’ that we are narrating in this series, which unifies the

_{ALL}**and the**

__n__

_{ALL}**categories into the single new «**

__s__**»**

*arché***,**

*category*

_{ALL}**-- of the “ p**

__r__**e-atomic “pa**

__r__**ticles” ” -- was**

__r__chosen for presentation in this series, because it abbreviates the narrative considerably, and is perhaps more intuitive for readers not so conversant with the detailed “particles” ontological taxonomy of contemporary “particle physics”.

With

_{ALL}**as «**

__n__**»**

*arché***, the category of the**

*category***uman arises as the**

__h__**256**th

**in**

*category*the models’ categorial progression.

With

_{ALL}**as «**

__r__**»**

*arché***, the categories of the**

*category***uman arrives after only half of that**

__h__extent, as the

**128**th

**in that categorial progression.**

*category*We have already noted that the

*“*embodied and encoded in these

**”**__dialectical__theory of everything*‘*, falls short of covering and addressing

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Models**’*“*as presently known to Terran humanity -- all known ontological categories -- in that it does not explicitly address the

**everything**”*still largely*entities presently referenced as “Dark Energy” and “Dark Matter”.

**known**__un__**Foundation**researchers are also at work on a still highly speculative hypothesis, one that, if not falsified by empirical data, could ground a new standard version of our

*‘*.

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’This hypothesis, instead of “lumping together” the «

**»**

*arché***and**

*category*

*first*

__meta__*-*«

**»**

*physis***of the present standard version**

*category**‘*, in effect

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’*‘*lumps’ the

**-**__de__

_{ALL}**as «**

__n__**»**

*arché***, by seeking a category for a deeper, earlier-irrupted physical ontology, explicitly addressing**

*category**“*, denoted

**Dark Energy**”

_{ALL}**, as the new «**

__x__**», plus a new, next-irrupted physical ontology, described algebraically as**

*arché*

_{ALL}

__q__**, basing an also pre-**

_{xx}

_{ALL}**,**

__n__

*first*

__meta__*-*«

**»**

*physis***, explicitly addressing**

*category*

__non__*-*

**baryonic***“*,

**Dark Matter**”

_{ALL}**.**

__c__This hypothesis thus amends our

*‘*to the following for its epoch

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model meta**-**equation**’**2**equation --

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{2}**= <**

_{ALL}

__x__**>**

^{22}=**<**

_{ALL}

__x__**>**

^{4}=

**<**

_{ALL}

__x__

^{2}**>**

^{2}= <

_{ALL}

__x__

^{2}**>**

**x <**

_{ALL}

__x__

^{2}**> =**

**<**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{xx}**>**

**x <**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{xx}**> =**

**<**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__c__**>**

**x <**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__c__**> =**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__c__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{c}

_{x}**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{cc}**|-.=**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__c__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{c}

_{x}**+**

_{ALL}

__n__-- with

_{ALL}

__q__

_{c}**representing the category of the interactions between “**

_{x}**Dark Matter**”

and “

**Dark Energy**”, and such that

_{ALL}**, the present**

__n__**, «**

*first***»**

*arché***of our present**

*category*standard

*‘*, now arises, instead, in this new,candidate

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’‘meta-model’, as the

**, or**

*fourth*

*second**‘*«

**meta**-**»’**

*physis***, namely, as --**

*category*

_{ALL}

__q__

_{xx}_{[}

_{xx}_{]}

**|-.=**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{cc}**|-.=**

_{ALL}**.**

__n__This means that,

**the**

__if__**ric primary interpretation of these solutions for the meanings**

*gene*of the terms/category-descriptions

_{ALL}

__q__**, and**

_{xx}

_{ALL}

__q__**, as expressed in the**

_{cc}‘solution sub-equations’

_{ALL}

__q__

_{xx}_{ }

**|-.=**

_{ALL}**, and**

__c__

_{ALL}

__q__

_{cc}_{ }

**|-.=**

_{ALL}**,**

__n__holds in the

**fic case of the ‘taxonomy level**

*speci***1**’,

*“*

**everything**”**[**

*universe**-*],

**of**-**discourse**for the

_{ALL}**«**

__c__**» and the**

*monads*

_{ALL}**«**

__n__

*monads***» of this new candidate**

*universal*‘meta-model’ -- as it does, we have found, for so many other domains, which are

sub-domains of this ‘

**’ domain, and as it also holds for all of the other, later-arising**

_{ALL}‘self-hybrid’ categories of, e.g., the

**<**

_{ALL}

__r__**>**

^{2t}

^{ALL}‘meta-model’ version --

**we have two entailed sub-hypotheses regarding the**

__then__

__composition__of the

_{ ALL}**“**

__c__**Dark Matter**” «

**», and of the**

*monads*

_{ALL}**--**

__n__

__no__*-*

**-“**__longer__**”**__elementary__“

**standard elementary particles**” «

**». They are that the «**

*monads***» of the “**

*monads***Dark Matter**”

_{ALL}**«**

__c__**»/**

*arithmos***are**

*category**‘*«

**meta**-**»’ of the «**

*monads***» of the “**

*monads***Dark Energy**”

_{ }

_{ALL}**«**

__x__**»/**

*arithmos***.**

*category*The «

**» of the “**

*monads***Ordinary Matter**”

_{ALL}**«**

__n__**»/**

*arithmos***are**

*category*

*‘*«

**meta**-**»’ of the «**

*monads***» of the “**

*monads***Dark Matter**”

_{ALL}**«**

__c__**»/**

*arithmos***, and are**

*category*therefore also describable as

*‘*«

**meta**-**meta**-**»’ of the «**

*monads***» of the “**

*monads***Dark Energy**”

_{ }

_{ALL}**«**

__x__**»/**

*arithmos***.**

*category*That is, the two entailed sub-hypotheses hold that

**(1)**the

**0 < v**capable ‘

__<__c**’**

__c__ontracton«

*monads***» of the “**

**Dark Matter**”

_{ALL}**«**

__c__**»/**

*arithmos***are**

*category**in some sense*

**the**

*made of*‘‘‘

**tachyonic**’’’,

**v**capable ‘

__>__c**e**

**’ «**

__x__pandon**» of the “**

*monads***Dark Energy**”

_{ALL}

__x__«

**»/**

*arithmos***, and**

*category***(2)**the “

**tardyons**” of the “

**Ordinary Matter**”

_{ALL}

__n__«

**»/**

*arithmos***are**

*category**in some sense*

**the light-speed-capable ‘**

*made of***’**

__c__ontractonsof the “

**Dark Matter**”

_{ }

_{ALL}**«**

__c__**»/**

*arithmos***.**

*category*This also means that, in this ‘deeper «

**»’ version of the**

*arché**‘*,

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’if it works out empirically, we will still, as in the present standard ‘meta-model’, have

*composite*

__sub-atomic__*, such as*

__“__**particles**”**,**

__protons__

_{ALL}**, arising as**

__s__

_{ALL}

__q__**,**

_{nn}and

**,**

__atoms__

_{ALL}**arising as**

__a__

_{ALL}

__q__**, and**

_{ss}**,**

__molecules__

_{ALL}**, arising as**

__m__

_{ALL}

__q__**,**

_{aa}and

__pre____-__,

**eukaryotic living cells**

_{ALL}**, arising as**

__p__

_{ALL}

__q__**, and so on, as before.**

_{mm}But, in addition, our ‘meta-model’ will be enriched with additional terms/category-descriptions, relative to our current ‘standard meta-model’, covering the possible interactions among “

**Dark**

**Energy**”,

_{ALL}**, “**

__x__**Dark Matter**”,

_{ALL}**, and “**

__c__**Ordinary**,

**Visible Matter**” categories, starting

from

_{ }

_{ALL}**, denoting the category of the “**

__n__**standard elementary particles**”, and onward

from there.

For example, for epoch

**3**, the new candidate ‘meta-equation’ yields the equation --

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{3}**= <**

_{ALL}

__x__**>**

^{23}=**<**

_{ALL}

__x__**>**

^{8}=

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__c__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{c}

_{x}**+**

_{ALL}

__n__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{n}

_{x}**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{n}

_{c}**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{n}

_{c}

_{x}**+**

_{ALL}

__s__-- including

**3**additional categories/terms --

_{ }

_{ALL}

__q__

_{n}**,**

_{x}

_{ALL}

__q__

_{n}**, and**

_{c}

_{ALL}

__q__

_{n}

_{c}

_{x}-- inserted with respect to our present standard ‘meta-model’,

*in-between*

_{ALL}**and**

__n__

_{ ALL}**,**

__s__and addressing, respectively, possible interaction-products of “

**standard elementary particle**” «

**» with**

*monads***(1)**“

**Dark Energy**” «

**», with**

*monads***(2)**“

**Dark Matter**” «

**», and**

*monads*with

**(3)**possible

*“*«

**hybrid**”

*m*

*o*

*n*

*a*

*d***»,**

*s*

_{ALL}

__q__

_{c}**, the**

_{x}*“*products of the interaction

**hybrid**”of “

**Dark Matter**” «

**» with “**

*monads***Dark Energy**” «

**».**

*monads*This new research hypothesis seeks to

**the entire**

__anchor__*‘*, in what, per this hypothesis, represents the primary

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’*‘*, or

**intra**-**duality**’*‘*, of our

**-**__self__**duality**’**-- in the older language of dialectics, the primary**

*cosmos***,**

*internal***, or**

*immanent*

__self__*-“*[a relationship that we signify via the relation-sign

**contradiction**”*‘*

**#**

*’*] of this

**as**

*cosmos***, as expressed this meta-model’s first pair of terms, its first “antithesis sum” --**

*totality*

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{1}**= <**

_{ALL}

__x__**>**

^{21}=**<**

_{ALL}

__x__**>**

^{2}=

**<**

_{ALL}

__x__

^{1}**>**

**x <**

_{ALL}

__x__

^{1}**> =**

_{ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{xx}**|-.=**

_{ ALL}

__x__**+**

_{ALL}**.**

__c__The “first antithesis” expressed by the ‘oppositional sum’ of the first two terms of this tentative new version of the

*‘*might be formulated as --

__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’

*‘*

**Dark**__Energy__**#**

*Dark*__Matter__*’*.

However, the

**Foundation**researchers prefer to formulate that

*“*in terms of the mutually opposing cosmological tendencies of

**first antithesis**”*--*

*‘*

**Dark**-__Anti__**Gravity****#**

*Dark*__Gravity__*’*

-- or --

*‘*

**-**__Un__known**Source**-__Anti__**Gravity****#**

__Un__known*-*

**Source****Dark**’__Gravity__-- or, better still, in terms of the mutually counter-acting tendencies of --

*‘*

**space**-**time**-__pro__**e**

__x__*pansivity***.**

*vs*

*space**-*.

**time**-__anti__**expansivity**’-- or --

*‘*

**space**-**time e**

__x__*pansivity***.**

*vs*

*space**-*

**time**

__c__*ontractivity**’*.

They see the

appropriate to choose

“

*‘***space**-**time e**__x__*pansivity**’**“*, or**side**”*‘‘‘*, of this**dual**’’’__dialectical__**, or***internal duality**‘*, of the**-**__self__**duality**’*whole***, as manifesting first in the history of our***cosmos***, making it***cosmos*appropriate to choose

_{ALL}**as their new, candidate «**__x__**»***arché***of their sought new,***category*“

**Dark Energy**”/“**Dark Matter**” comprehending, deeper-«**»***arché**‘*.__Dialectic__**of Nature****Meta**-**Model**’They also see the cosmological-e

**pansive**

__x__

_{ALL}**“**

__x__**Dark Energy**” ‘

**anti**-

**gravitic**’ ‘‘‘force’’’ as

manifesting in three major manners, so far, in the history of our

**, to present human**

*cosmos*knowledge --

**(1)**as the initial “

**Big Bang**” e

**pansion;**

__x__**(2)**as the theorized early post-“

**Big Bang**” episode of

__faster__*-than-light-speed*

*“*e

**cosmological inflation**”**pansion of**

__x__*the ‘space-time-mass-energy’*

of the total

**, and;**

*cosmos***(3)**as the currently-observed,

__slower__*-than-light-speed*

__acceleration__in the rate of e

**pansion of the “space-time” of our**

__x__**.**

*cosmos*They see the cosmological-

**ontractive**

__c__

_{ALL}**“**

__c__**Dark Matter**” ‘‘‘

**gravitic**’’’ force as manifesting,

so far in the history of our

**, to present human knowledge, in the formation of galactic**

*cosmos*‘super

**-clusters’; super**

^{n}**-clusters or “super-super-clusters”, super**

^{2}**-clusters,**

^{1}“mere” [super

**-]clusters, and galaxies themselves -- also enabling the formation of stars**

^{0}and of stellar-systems, including of stellar/planetary systems, etc., within galaxies.

They see the

__faster__*-than-light-speed*e

**pansion-capability of the**

__x__

_{ALL}**“**

__x__**Dark Energy**” ‘‘‘force’’’

as a possible key clue to the classification and identification of that ” ‘

**anti**-

**gravitic**’ ‘‘‘force’’’, as

well as to the classification and identification of cosmologically-

**ontractive**

__c__

_{ALL}**“**

__c__**Dark Matter**”.

It suggests to them that a form of ‘‘‘

celerity will also be an extremely “ghostly” -- or “subtle” and “intangible” -- form of ‘‘‘

behaviors associated with “

That is, such a ‘‘‘

making it “

interactions, retaining

**materiality**’’’ that is capable of__faster__*-than-light-speed*celerity will also be an extremely “ghostly” -- or “subtle” and “intangible” -- form of ‘‘‘

**materiality**’’’, one that will lack almost all of the basic interaction capabilities andbehaviors associated with “

**Ordinary Matter**”,_{ALL}**and beyond.**__n__That is, such a ‘‘‘

**materiality**’’’ will lack**electromagnetic**interaction capability,making it “

**Dark**”, as well as lacking capability for the “**strong**” and the “**weak**”interactions, retaining

**the ‘‘‘**__only__**gravitic**’’’ ‘interactivity’, in the form of an*‘***-**__anti__**graviticity**’.It further suggests to them that the ‘‘‘

**materiality**’’’ of cosmologically-

**ontractive**

__c__

_{ALL}**“**

__c__**Dark**

**Matter**” will be less “ghostly”, less “subtle” and “intangible”, relative to the ‘‘‘

**materiality**’’’ of

_{ALL}**“**

__x__**Dark Energy**”, but still very “ghostly”, or “subtle” / “intangible” relative to the

**‘‘‘**

__tangible__**’’’ of**

__materiality__

_{ALL}**“**

__n__**Ordinary Matter**”.

In particular, they suspect that the «

**» of**

*monads*

_{ALL}**“**

__c__**Dark Matter**” will be, like

**photon**ic

‘‘‘

**materiality**’’’

*****, capable of traveling at light speed,

**c**,

**[thus distinguishing**

*but no greater*it from

_{ }

_{ALL}**“**

__x__**Dark Energy**”], and,

**like**

__un__**0**rest mass

**photon**«

**», have**

*monads*

**> 0**rest mass, and will be capable of traveling at speeds

*less than***c**as well, also

__like__

**un**

**0**rest mass

**photon**«

**», which are observed to travel**

*monads*__at__

**only**__the speed of light.__

**exactly*******[For this reason, they group

**photons**-- those ‘

**luxonic bosons**’ -- together with

‘

**’, as two**

__c__ontractons**of a common «**

*species***», which they sometimes call**

*genos*‘

**alacritons**’, signifying the «

**» of**

*genos*

**light**-

**speed***-**«*

**capable**

*monads***»].**

As a consequence of these celerity characteristics, we further suspect that the

**> 0**rest mass

«

**» of**

*monads*

_{ALL}**“**

__c__**Dark Matter**” will lack

**electromagnetic**interaction capability, as well as

lacking capability for the “

**strong**” interaction, retaining only the “

**weak**” interaction, and the ‘‘‘

**gravitic**’’’ interaction, similar to the

**0**rest mass

**photon**«

**», which are the ‘‘‘bosonic’’’ carriers of the**

*monads***electromagnetic**interaction, and which lack capability for the “

**strong**”

**the “**

__and__**weak**” interactions, but which also retain ‘‘‘

**gravitic**’’’ ‘interactivity’.

**1**.

**Epoch**

**t**

**=**_{ALL}**1**:

__atomic____nuclei__**ontology**

*‘*--

**irruptant**’**Primarily Hydrogen and Helium**--

*Nuclei***Hydrogen Ions**[

**Naked**

**Protons**]

**and Helium Ions**/-

**Plasmas -- and**,

**Later**,

**Neutral Gaseous Hydrogen and Helium Atoms**,

**with Electron Shells**/-

**Probability Clouds**--

**Emerge into Existence for the First Time**,

**via the Fusion Process called**“

**Primordial Nucleosynthesis**”,

**or**

*“*

**C**

__[__*osmological*__non__*-*

**stellar] Nucleosynthesis**” --

**the**

*“*

**Original****Accumulation**”**of**

**.**

__atoms__

**1**.**1**__Formulaic Summary for the__*First*Full Epoch of__‘__. ‘Ideo

**Cosmological***Meta**-***Evolution**’**ized’ /- ‘ideo**

__graph__**ized’, “shorthand” summary of the narrative rendition below.**

__gram__**t**

**, then --**

**= 1**_{ALL}

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__

_{t}

_{ALL}**=**

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__**1**

**=**

**<**

_{ALL}

__r__**>**

^{21}=**<**

_{ALL}

__r__**>**

^{2}=

_{ALL}

__r__

^{1}**x**

_{ALL}

__r__

^{1}**=**

_{ }

_{ALL}

__r__**x**

_{ALL}

__r__**=**

_{ALL}

__r__**+**

__Delta__**<**

_{ALL}

__r__**> =**

_{ALL}

__r__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__**.**

_{rr}-- as

**t**

**=**_{ALL}

**0**

**→**

**t**

**=**_{ALL}

**1**.

‘Epoch

**1**’ still includes the ontology of our «

**» cosmological category, denoted by**

*arché*

_{ALL}**, as**

__r__[possibly] still existent, but also includes a

**‘cosmo-ontological’ category, for a predicted / ‘retrodicted’ / reconstructed new ontology, that of a new,**

*second***«**

*second***», one of qualitatively different kinds of**

*arithmos***, or of**

*monads***, than the**

*units***of the**

*units***,**

__first__

_{ALL}**, «**

__r__**» of «**

*arithmos***», this**

*monads***possible «**

*second***» being denoted, ‘‘‘algebraically’’’, by**

*arithmos*

_{ALL}

__q__**.**

_{rr}Our task, with respect to this epoch

**t**

**model-equation of our overall**

**= 1**_{ALL}*‘meta-*model

*meta-*equation’, is the “solve for” the meaning of this new term,

_{ALL}

__q__**, that is, to find that**

_{rr}already known category of ‘cosmos-ontology’ that came into existence next after

_{ALL}**, as an**

__r__outgrowth of/from

_{ALL}**, by means of a**

__r__

*self**-*«

**»**

*aufheben**‘*of the

**self**-**-**__meta__**monadization**’«

**» of the**

*monads*

_{ALL}**«**

__r__**».**

*arithmos*That is, the standard “first try” method of solution for the ‘dialectical-algebraic unknown’ term,

_{ALL}

__q__**, is to scan our knowledge of Nature for units, or «**

_{rr}**», each of which can be aptly characterized as ‘a meta-**

*monads*

_{ALL}**unit, each one made up out of a heterogeneous multiplicity of**

__r__

_{ }

_{ALL}**units’ -- i.e., ‘a meta-“pa**

__r____ticle” unit, each one made up out of a heterogeneous multiplicity of__

**r**“pa

__ticles” ’.__

**r**To our minds, the natural formation that “fills this bill” is called the “atom”.

Each typical “atom” unit is made up out of one or more p

__oton, neut__

**r****on, and elect**

__r__**on sub-units, each of which is a “ p**

__r____e-nuclea__

**r**__, p__

**r**__e-atomic “pa__

**r**__ticle” ”.__

**r**The simplest such

*‘*«

__-__**meta****»’ -- ‘heterogeneous multiplicities of**

*monads*

_{ALL}**«**

__r__**»’**

*monads*

*‘*«

__-__**meta****»’ -- i.e., the simplest**

*monads***«**

__a__tom**», is the normal, neutral**

*monad***,**

__H__ydrogen__a__tom**, which is a ‘heterogeneous**

**1**__H____multiplicity’ of thus exactly__

**minimal****2**, indeed heterogeneous -- mutually qualitatively different --

_{ALL}**units: one**

__r__

**elec**

**t***«*

**ron****», and one**

*monad*

**pro**

**t***«*

**on****».**

*monad*The most complex such

*‘*«

__-__**meta****»’ -- ‘heterogeneous multiplicities of**

*monads*

_{ALL}**«**

__r__**»’**

*monads*

*‘*«

__-__**meta****»’ -- i.e., the most complex**

*monads***«**

__a__tom**», that arises spontaneously, and “primordially”, in pre-human Nature, and that persists for substantial durations -- that is, apart from those**

*monad***that arise only via the advanced technological activities within human Nature -- is the**

__a__toms**Isotope**

__P__l__u__tonium**, which is a ‘heterogeneous multiplicity’ of**

**244Pu****338**

_{ALL}**units:**

__r__

**94**

**elec**

**t***«*

**ron****s», and**

*monad***94**

**pro**

**t***«*

**on****s», and**

*monad***150**

**neu**

__t__*«*

**ron****s».**

*monad*We can assert [ ‘

**|-.**’ ] this solution for the meaning / “intension” / “connotation” of the algebraic

__known term__

**un**

_{ALL}

__q__**, formally, as follows, using**

_{rr}

_{ALL}**to connote the category named**

__a__“

**” --**

__atoms__

_{ALL}

__q__

_{rr}**|-.=**

_{ALL}**.**

__a__Our solution to the epoch

**1**dialectical-algebraic equation --

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__**1**

**=**

_{ALL}

__r__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{rr}-- containing one

__category-symbol,__

**known**

_{ALL}**, and one**

__r____known category-symbol,__

**un**

_{ALL}

__q__**,**

_{rr}is therefore --

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__**1**

**=**

_{ALL}

__r__**+**

_{ALL}

__a__-- an equation which contains

**only**__category-symbols --__

**known**

**exactly two**__known__category-symbols for epoch

**1**:

_{ALL}**and**

__r__

_{ALL}**.**

__a__In the above -- thus “solved” -- equation, the

_{ALL}**term is still there, because some epoch**

__r__**0**

p

**e-atomic “particles” still persist in[to] epoch**

__r__**1**, and because some epoch

**1**interactions among

p

**e-atomic “particles” -- e.g., some high energy collisions among the**

__r__

_{ALL}**, which produce other**

__r__constituents of

_{ALL}**-- still reproduce results that remain [within]**

__r__

_{ALL}**.**

__r__The

_{ALL}

__q__

_{rr}**|-.=**

_{ALL}**term is there, in that equation, to represent those lasting products of**

__a__

_{ALL}**with**

__r__

_{ALL}**interactions that produce**

__r__**,**

__atoms__

_{ALL}**.**

__a__

**1**.**2****for ‘epoch**

__Narrative Summary__**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**1**’.

The ‘meta-model’ epoch in which the «

**» that constitute the**

*monads***‘cosmo-ontological**

__atoms__category’ --

_{ALL}

__q__

_{rr}**|-.=**

_{ALL}**-- first irrupt into existence , namely, ‘epoch**

__a__**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**1**’ -- if

we extend, ‘‘‘universalize’’’, or ‘«

*»*

**gene***-*ralize’ Marx’s

*‘*«

*»*

**speci***-*al’ application of his terms

*“*

*versus [followed by]*

**f****”**__ormal__subsumption*“*

*, and his term*

**”**__real__subsumption*“*, versus [followed by]

**”**__original__accumulation*‘‘‘*, from the historically-«

**’’’**__reproductive__accumulation*»*

**speci***-*fic contexts of subsumption

*/ by “the capital relation”, and of*

**by**__capital____accumulation -- is the cosmological epoch of the merely__

**capital***‘‘‘*of all previous

**’’’**__formal__subsumption‘cosmo-ontology’ [namely,

_{ALL}**], by the superceding ‘cosmo-ontology’ of**

__r____,__

**atoms**

_{ALL}**, the**

__a__newly-irruptant a ‘cosmo-ontology’, and is not yet that of the

*‘‘‘*of

**re****’’’**__al__subsumption

_{ALL}

__r__by

_{ALL}**.**

__a__The superceding ‘cosmo-ontology’ of

__,__

**atoms**

_{ALL}**, has just come into existence, from out of the**

__a__densest core of its predecessor ‘cosmo-ontology’,

_{ALL}**.**

__r__However, as of the end of ‘meta-model epoch

**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**1**’, the

__ontology has not yet had time__

**atoms**to interact with, and thus to [partially] [

*ly]*

__-__**real***, the*

**subsume***remaining*

__pre____-__

__atomic____“__

__particles____”__ontology of the cosmos.

That interaction, hence the

*‘‘‘*of

**re****’’’**__al__subsumption

_{ALL}**by**

__r__

_{ALL}**-- connoted by the**

__a__

**third**category-symbol of this categorial progression, the

__category-symbol / [__

**hybrid**__]__

**dialectical**

**synthesis***category-symbol*

_{ALL}

__q__**-- only begins with the beginning of**

_{ar }‘meta-model epoch

**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**2**’.

‘Meta-model epoch

**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**1**’ is also the epoch of the

*‘‘‘*, or of the

**’’’**__original__accumulation

*‘‘‘*, of the

**’’’**__primitive__accumulation__‘cosmo-ontology’,__

**atoms**

_{ALL}**, in which**

__a____of the__

**some**«

**» of the**

*monads*

__pre____-__

__atomic____“__

__particles____”__‘cosmo-ontology’,

_{ALL}**,**

__r____,__

**initially***‘*

__’ and__

**transitorially**

*,*

**sustainably**__un__

*into [*

**convert**__themselves__*]«*

**-**__meta__**» of the**

*monads*__‘cosmo-ontology’,__

**atoms**

_{ALL}**.**

__a__The

*‘‘‘*of

**’’’**__reproductive__accumulation__ontology,__

**atoms**

_{ALL}**-- by means of a**

__a____,__

**continual**__,__

**ongoing**__conversion of__

**sustained**

_{ALL}**into**

__r__

_{ALL}**,**

__a__*the*

__catalyzed____by__

_{ALL}**already, earlier**

__a__created,

__inside the hearts of those ‘‘‘natural formations’’’ that cosmologists call__

“first generation stars” which “burn”

**protons**[i.e., which “burn” plasma “

**Hydrogen**

**ions**”,

or “

**Hydrogen**

**nuclei**”], by nuclear fusion, into

**Helium**

**nuclei**/

__and, later, “burn”__

**atoms**

**Helium nuclei**/

__, etc., into the__

**atoms**

**a****tom**«

**» of the higher**

*monads*

**a****tom**ic

*‘*«

*»es’,*

**speci**e.g.,

**Carbon**

__,__

**atoms****Oxygen**

__,__

**atoms****Nitrogen**

__, etc. -- only arrives with the arrival__

**atoms**of ‘meta-model epoch

**t**

_{ALL}**=**

**2**’.

It arrives in the form of its / this meta-model’s

__category-symbol,__

**third**

_{ALL}

__q__**, which connotes**

_{ar}the conversion

**OF**

_{ALL}**ontology, catalyzed to do so**

__r____, or with the help of,__

**BY**

_{ALL}**ontology,**

__a__

**INTO**

_{ALL}**ontology, especially via the ontology that resides on the borderline between**

__a__

_{ALL}

__a__and

_{ALL}**, namely**

__r__*‘*less’

**electron**-**Hydrogen**’

__atoms__**ions**/

**nuclei**, denoted by

__H__**; thus,**

**+**the

_{ALL}**mediated autocatalysis of**

__r__

_{ALL}**.**

__a__This later process, connoted by our meta-model’s ‘cosmo-ontological category-symbol’,

_{ }

_{ALL}

__q__**, is the process that cosmologists call**

_{ar}*“*, with

**”**__stellar__nucleosynthesis

_{ALL}

__q__

_{ar}connoting especially the “first generation”, ‘

_{ALL}**-converting’, or ‘**

__r__

_{ALL}**-**

__r__*,*

**burning**’i.e.,

*‘*

*‘**‘***proton**-**burning**’*’*

*’*, almost pure-

**Hydrogen**[-

*plasma],*

**ion**minimally-“metallized” stars.

Cosmologists call the earlier process, connoted by

_{ALL}

__q__**-- the process of the**

_{rr}

*‘*‘‘__original__*, or*

**accumulation**’’’*‘‘‘*, of the first

**’’’**__primitive__accumulation__«__

**atoms****» -- by the names**

*monads**“*, or “primordial nucleosynthesis”, or “big bang nucleosynthesis”,

**”**__cosmological__nucleosynthesisas distinct from what they call the later,

*‘‘‘*form of

**’’’**__reproductive__accumulation*“*osysthesis” -- of the “synthesis” of

**nucle**__ic “__

**atom**__i” -- namely,__

**nucle***“*, connoted by

**”**__stellar__nucleosynthesis

_{ALL}

__q__**.**

_{ar}Steve Weinberg sets forth, succinctly, the present scientific evidentiary and theoretical necessity for the

*‘*diction’ of an era of

**retro**

__-__**pre****stellar**,

*“*, in the

**”**__cosmological__nucleosynthesis**1993**second edition of his book

__:__

**The First Three Minutes***, as follows --*

**A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe****“**Today it is generally believed that nucleosynthesis occurs

*both*cosmologically and in stars; the helium and perhaps a few other light nuclei were synthesized in the early universe, while the stars are responsible for everything else.”

“The “big bang” theory of nucleosynthesis [M.D.: the original version of that theory, by George Gamow,

*et al*., which held that most of nucleosynthesis occurred universe-wide, in the “early universe”, rather than later, in stars], by trying to do too much, had lost the plausibility that it really deserved as a theory of helium synthesis.

**”**

[Steven Weinberg,

__, second edition, BasicBooks, [NY:__

**The First Three Minutes****1993**], p.

**130**].

Donald Goldsmith, in his year

**2000**book

__:__

**The Runaway Universe***, provides further detail on the content of the contemporary theory of*

**The Race to Find the Future of the Cosmos***“*, in the following passage --

**”**__cosmological__nucleosynthesis**“**The first few minutes of big-bang nucleosynthesis began with ordinary matter mostly in the form of protons (hydrogen nuclei), which underwent wholesale fusion into helium niclei throughout the universe.”

“As a result, when the era of big-bang nucleosynthesis came to an end, a few minutes after the big bang, about 25 percent of the total mass of ordinary matter had taken the form of helium-4 nuclei, each of which contains two protons and two neutrons.”

“Almost all of the remaining 75 percent of ordinary matter continued to reside in the form of protons.”

“The first few minutes after the big bang did not provide time to produce significant amounts of any nuclei heavier than helium through additional nuclear fusion.

**”**

[Donald Goldsmith,

__, Perseus Books, [Cambridge, MA.:__

**The Runaway Universe****2000**], pp.

**73**-

**74**].

Alan Guth, one of the originators of the theory of

*“*-- that is, the theory of a momentaneous period of

**cosmological**”__inflation__*of the early cosmos, just after the “big bang” -- provides the following more detailed recounting of the ‘retrodictions’ of the then-prevailing mathematical models of the “big bang” early universe, in his*

**faster**-**than**-**light**-**speed self**-**expansion of the space**-**time****1997**book

__:__

**The Inflationary Universe***--*

**The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins****“**The description of [M.D.: cosmological] nucleosynthesis can be started at 0.1 seconds after the big bang, when the temperature [M.D.: the average temperature of the entire cosmos] was 31.5 billion degrees Kelvin.”

“This temperature is so high that neither atoms nor even nuclei would have been stable -- the random motion of the intense heat would have torn them apart, setting free the electrons, protons, and neutrons to stream through space as free particles. (The protons and neutrons themselves are

stable at these temperatures, although at temperatures higher than about 10

^{13o }Kelvin they too would be broken into their constituents, called

*quarks*.)”

“For every neutron there were 1.61 protons.”

“The [M.D.: mass-]density of protons and neutrons was very modest, only about one and a half times that of water.”

“However, although the protons and neutrons are important to us (we are made of them! [M.D.: as well as of

*electrons*, and, in a sense, of

*photons*also, and of the

*quarks*and

*gluons*within our

*protons*and

*neutrons*]), they were only a slight seasoning in a very dense cosmic soup that was thickened by other ingredients.”

“The extreme heat produced a blaze of black body radiation so intense that its energy dwarfed that of the protons and neutrons. According to relativity, the energy density of radiation is equivalent to a mass density, which was 5 million times larger than the mass density of protons and neutrons. Quantum theory implies that the energy of electromagnetic radiation is not spread out smoothly in space, but instead is concentrated in bundles [M.D.: I.e., manifests in the form of a ‘«

*»*

**speci***-*al’ kind of p

**e-atomic «**

__r__**»] called**

*monads**photons*, which are essentially particles of light. ... we can talk about photons in the same way that we talk about protons or electrons.”

“At this time there were about 1.7 billion photons for every neutron.”

“the cosmic inventory also included electrons and their antiparticles, called

*positrons*, both of which were produced in large numbers by the energetic collisions of other particles.”

“Collisions also produced a thick soup of neutrinos and antineutrinos.”

“For every eight photons there were six electrons, six positrons, nine neutrinos, and nine antineutrinos.”

“There was also one electron for every proton, so that the mix was electrically neutral.”

...

“Nucleosynthesis started at one second in the sense that the proton to neutron ratio began to deviate from its thermal equilibrium value -- a fact that is crucial in determining the abundances of the chemical elements [M.D.: I.e., the proportions of the ‘«

*»es’ of*

**speci**__ic «__

**atom****»] that are later produced.”**

*monads*“The actual formation of nuclei, however, did not begin until much later.”

“By about 1.5 seconds the universe had cooled enough so that helium-4 nuclei could have held together if they were formed, but helium-4 is not at the beginning of the chain.”

“The chain starts with the production of deuterium [M.D.: a variant, or “isotope”, of the normal Hydrogen nucleus -- i.e., of a single proton -- that consists of a proton and a neutron ‘nuclearly-bonded’ together by the “strong nuclear force”, and sometimes called “heavy Hydrogen” -- the simplest atomic nucleus that is more than a single proton].”

“Since deuterium is an extremely fragile nucleus, this “deuterium bottleneck” delayed [M.D.: cosmological] nucleosynthesis until about three and a half minutes after the big bang.

**”**

[Alan H. Guth,

__, Helix Books, [NY:__

**The Inflationary Universe****1997**], pp.

**90**-

**92**;

**94**].

Malcolm Longhair, in his

**1996**book

__, summarized both the content of the then-current theory of__

**Our Evolving Universe***“*

**”-**__cosmological__nucleosynthesis**followed**-**by**-*“*,

**”**__stellar__nucleosynthesisregarding the self-organization of mass-energy to the

__ic level of organization/ontology,__

**atom**

_{ALL}

__a__[but no higher], and the scientific rationale -- both theoretical and evidentiary -- for the adoption of this theory --

**“**Let us study the evolution of the various constituents of the Universe ... .”

“The computations begin at such high temperatures and densities that all the particles which can exist at these temperatures are maintained in their equilibrium abundances.”

“Protons, neutrons and radiation are present, as well as other particles which must be present because the system is in thermal equilibrium -- these particles include neutrinos, muons, electrons and their antiparticles.”

“Of particular importance is the fact that the protons and neutrons are maintained in their equilibrium abundances by weak interactions involving electron neutrinos...”

“As the Universe cools, the time-scales of these weak interactions increase rapidly and, when the Universe is about one second old, they become greater than the age of the universe. The neutrinos are therefore no longer able to maintain the equilibrium abundances of neutrons and protons at alter times and the neutron-to-proton ratio is more or less frozen at the value it had when the neutrinos decoupled.”

“This epoch, when the neutrinos decoupled from the protons and neutrons, results in a neutrino barrier ... . If we were able to observe the Universe in neutrinos, we would never be able to observe neutrinos from epochs earlier than this barrier ... .”

“The electrons and their antiparticles, the positrons, are also maintained in their equilibrium abundances by the process of electron-positron pair production in collisions of high energy [M.D.: gamma-]rays of the thermal background radiation but, when the average energy of the [M.D.: gamma-]rays falls below the rest energy of the electron, the electrons and positrons annihilate [M.D.: as before, but this time without any replenishment by further new creation of electron-positron pairs via colliding gamma-ray photons' mutual annihilations [photons being "their own antiparticles"], so that the primordial electron and positron populations dwindle] and the energy released slightly heats up the thermal background radiation ... .”

“All that are left now are protons and neutrons [M.D. and, of course, photons], which can combine to form the simplest compound nucleus, deuterium (2H), which consists of a proton and neutron -- this simple nucleus is often referred to as a deuteron.”

“When radiation temperature is as high as 3 000 000 000 K, however, the deuterons do not survive as they are dissociated by the [M.D.: gamma-]rays of the background radiation and a very low abundance of deuterium is expected ... .”

“As the Universe continues to expand and cool down, however, more and more of the deuterium survives.”

“The deuterons then interact with protons and neutrons and other deuterons to form heavier elements.”

[M.D.: Informally, in a Seldonian algebraic shorthand for a taxonomy level

**2**‘sub-model’ of these reactions, or interactions, that lead to

__euterium and beyond, for the domain, or universe-of-discourse, of__

**D**__toms alone, with__

**a**__rotons [__

**p****ydrogen ions] and**

__H____eutrons as the «__

**n****» «**

*arché***» of the «**

*monads***» «**

*arché***», i.e., as the «**

*arithmos***» ontological categories for domain**

*arché*

**2**__, these processes can be connoted, with the ‘pre-__

**a**__scipt’ ‘__

**sub****’ indicating the taxonomy level**

_{2}**2**

‘‘‘location’’’ of these processes, and the ‘pre-superscripts’ indicating the atomic weight of the different kinds of atoms produced, and ‘

**|**’ indicating the co-presence of an indefinite number/population of «

__+__|**» of the category indicated, the qualitative, categorial details of these processes/interactions/reactions could be expressed as --**

*monads*

_{2}

**|****1**__H____+__|

_{2}

__n__

__=__

_{2}

__p__

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__n__

__=__

_{2}__q__

_{p}

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__q__**,**

_{n}**--->**

**<**

_{2}__q___{p}

**|**__+__|_{2}__q__**>**_{n}__<__*of*

_{2}__q___{p}

**|**__+__|_{2}__q___{n}**> =**

**<**

_{2}__q___{p}

**|**__+__|_{2}__q___{n}**>**

**=**^{2}

_{2}__q___{p}

**|**__+__|_{2}__q___{n}

**|**__+__|

_{2}__q___{pp}

**|**__+__|

_{2}__q___{pn}

**|**__+__|

_{2}__q__**=**_{nn}

_{2}

__p__

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__n__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**

__D__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**

__D__

**|**.__+__|**=**

_{2}

__p__

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__n__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**,

__D__**--->**

**<**

_{2}

__p__

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__n__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**

__D__

__>____<__*of*

_{2}

__p__

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__n__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**

__D__

__> =__

**<**_{2}__p__**|**__+__|_{2}__n__**|**__+__|_{2}**2**__D__**>**

**=****2**

_{2}

__p__

**|**__+__|

_{2}

__n__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**

__D__

**|**__+__|

_{2}__q___{Dp}

**|**__+__|

_{2}__q___{Dn}

**|**__+__|**=**

_{2}__q___{DD}

_{2}__p__

**|**__+__|_{2}__n__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**2**

__D__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**3**

__He__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**3**

__T__

**|**__+__|

_{2}**3**

__He__

_{}

**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__T__**=**

_{2}__n__

**|**__+__|_{2}**1**__H__

**|**__+__|_{2}**2**__H__

**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__H__**,**

**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__He__**--->**

**<**

_{2}__n__**|**__+__|_{2}**1**__H__**|**__+__|_{2}**2**__H__**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__H__**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__He___{2}**>****=****2**

_{2}__n__**|**__+__|_{2}**1**__H__**|**__+__|_{2}**2**__H__**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__H__**|**__+__|_{2}**3**__He___{2}

**|**__+__|_{2}**4**__He___{2}

**|**. . .__+__|**. . .**

-- wherein ‘

**.**’ denotes a non-existent or unknown stable/enduring reaction product category. In the expression above, both

_{ }

_{2}**and**

__p__**represent the category of the**

_{2}**1**__H____roton or the__

**p***“*

*ionized*normal

**ydrogen atom”, or “normal**

__H__**ydrogen**

__H__

*nucleus*

*”*, both

_{2}**2**and

__D__**represent the category of**

_{2}**2**__H____euterium, and both__

**D**

_{2}**3**and

__T__**represent the category**

_{2}**3**__H__of

__ritium [the__

**T****ydrogen isotope with two**

__H____eutrons in its nucleus, thus with atomic weight__

**n****3**].

“By the time the temperature has dropped to 300 000 000 K, all the nuclear reactions are over.”

“...most of the neutrons have been combined with protons to form the most stable helium isotope,

4He, but there are also traces of other light elements such as deuterium, the lighter isotope of

helium, 3He, and a little Lithium, 7Li.”

“It is striking that no heavier elements such as Carbon and Oxygen are created.”

“The reason for this is that there are no stable species with five and eight nucleons -- beryllium-8, for example, is a totally unstable nucleus.”

“The spectacular result of these calculations is that the elements which are formed by this process of

*primordial nucleosynthesis*are precisely those which have proved impossible to account for by nucleosynthesis in stars.”

“... wherever we look in the Universe, helium always seems to be present with an abundance of 25% by mass, quite independent of the abundance of the heavier elements.”

“The remarkable result of these calculations of primordial nucleosynthesis is that, for any reasonable value of average density of ordinary matter in the Universe now, about 23 to 24% of helium by mass is created by nuclear reactions in the first few minutes of the Big Bang.”

“While stars can produce a small amount of helium, we do not know of any way of creating as much as 25% of helium by nucleosynthesis in stars.”

“Equally, it is very difficult to understand how deuterium could be created by nucleosynthesis inside stars. It is such a fragile element that it is destroyed in stellar interiors rather rather than being created.”

“Primordial nucleosynthesis in the Big Bang solves these dilemmas.

**”**

[Malcolm S. Longhair,

__, Cambridge University Press, [NY:__

**Our Evolving Universe****1996**], pp.

**140**-

**141**].

The detailed vicissitudes described in the quotes above are only captured, by our epoch

**1**‘dialectical equation’, “connotationally”, or “intensionally”, and summarily, via the high-level category-symbols

for ‘p

__e-__

**r**__toms’,__

**a**

_{ALL}**, and for their «**

__r__**» ‘self-meta-«**

*aufheben***»-ization’,**

*monad*

_{ALL}

__q__**, yielding**

_{rr}

**,**

__atoms__

_{ALL}**--**

__a__

_{ALL}

__>-|-<__**1**

**=**

_{ALL}

__r__**+**

_{ALL}

__q__

_{rr}**=**

_{ALL}

__r__**+**

_{ALL}

__a__-- with deep implicitude, i.e., only at their highest level of

*rality, and only*

__-__**gene***.*

**purely**-__qual__itativelyThe

__N____Q___*ideographical language can also be used to ‘explicitize’ those details, by*

__-__**dialectica****l**the formulation of

*models, tracking the*

__-__**sub***“dynamics” and ‘meta-dynamics’ “internal”*

__qual__itativeto those categories, i.e., of the

*categories of / “within” categories like*

__-__**sub**

_{ALL}**and**

__r__

_{ALL}

__q__**, or**

_{rr}

_{ }

_{ALL}**, sometimes also plus nested**

__a__*models, tracking the*

**-**__sub____-__**sub***categories, and so on.*

**-**__sub____-__**sub**The detailed

*determinations of these “dynamics” and ‘meta-dynamics’ are*

__quant__itative__captured by models that use the language of__

**not***‘*

**the Seldonian First**

*Arithmetic/Algebra*__Dialectical__*’*--

**N**

__q__

_{NN}**=**

__N____Q___**[--->**

__q__**.**

_{1}To ‘explicitize’ the population

__ity “dynamics” of the successive cosmological ontological category’__

**quant***‘*

**-**__qual__o**[meta-]dynamics’ “as a function of time” would require at least**

__itative__*quant**‘*

**the Seldonian Second**__Dialectical__Arithmetic/Algebra*’*--

**N**__q____{QN}**=**__N____U___**[--->**

__q__**.**

_{3}

To explicitly describe the state-variable and control-parameter

*‘*

**qual****o**-__quant__**itative**’ ‘

**eal[-numbers]’ “dynamics” and ‘meta-dynamics’ of the successive cosmological ontological categories, “as a function of ‘**

__R__**eal[-number] time’, would require at least**

__R__*‘*

**the Seldonian Sixth**__Dialectical__Arithmetic/Algebra*’*over the “

**eal Numbers Field” --**

__R__

**R**__q____{MQN}**=**

**R**__q____{MU}**=**

**R**__Mu___

**[--->**

__q__

_{7}-- and would be better served by formulation in later “

**eal Numbers Field”-subsuming versions of the Seldonian**

__R__*/ axioms-systems, such as the*

__dialectical__ideographies**15**th axioms-system, in which explicit [

*]*

__-__**meta**

**dynamical***can be directly expressed, or such as the*

**systems****31**st axioms-system, in which such systems with explicit

*systems can be directly expressed, or such as the*

__-__**sub****63**rd axioms-system, in which such systems with explicit

*systems, each with explicit*

__-__**sub***systems of their own, can be directly expressed, etc. -- i.e., respectively, per the following categories representing the axioms-systems of the ‘meta-systematic dialectical’ progression of the Seldonian dialectical arithmetics/algebras ‘ideo-ontology’--*

**-**__sub__**-**__sub__

**R**__q____{AMQN}**=****,**

**R**__q____{AMU}__=____R__

*Alpha*__Mu___**[--->**

__q__

_{15}_{-- and -- }

**R**__q____{BAMQN}**=****,**

**R**__q____{BAMU}__=____R__

*Beta*__Mu___**[--->**

__q__

_{31}

_{}_{-- and -}

_{-}

_{ }

**R**__q____{GBAMQN}**=****,**

**R**__q____{GBAMU}__=____R__

*Gamma*__Mu___**[--->**

__q__

_{63}

_{}_{-- all of which represent solutions for individual category-symbols, or axioms-system-symbols, generated by the }

_{‘meta-model meta-equation}

_{’ for the dialectic of the Seldonian dialectical arithmetics --}

_{ }

**#_**

__)-|-(__

_{s}

_{# }**= <**

**#_**

__N___**>**

^{2t}

^{#_}-- wherein the «

**» axioms-system of arithmetic category,**

*arché*

**#_****, connotes the**

__N___*[*

**-**__first__**order**__] axioms-system of the “__

**only****atural” Numbers.**

__N__*:*

**TO BE CONTINUED****--**

__NEXT__

**The**.

__of Nature__*Dialectic***Part III**.

**B**.

**Epoch t = 2**:

**Molecules Emergent**.

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